I have previously mentioned that I want to post on the topic of fitness as it relates to skating. Since I don’t have a degree or formal education of any kind, and the science specific to speed skating is so limited in terms of research and publications, consider this your lawyerly disclaimer that the remainder of this post is purely my opinion based on the arm-chair internet research I have done on the topic of sport science and how it may or may not apply to speed skating, specifically inline speed skating, and my experiences in training for inline marathon races. Take this for what it is worth, something to think about and consider, discuss and dispute, dissect and analyze. I hope this post can be used as a starting point for more conversation.
After my VO2 Max test in April, I realized that my physical ability, in terms of being an endurance athlete, is in the average range. My goal is to skate faster, and one way to focus my training to achieve that goal is to consider what weaknesses I need to reinforce to insure I am getting the most of the engine that drives my hobby, namely my body. Unfortunately, there is very little science specific to speed skating, and even less dedicated to inline speed skating. Most of my research looked at similar endurance sports, like cycling, for simulacra that could be used to understand what happens to the body during intense exercise.
Cycling and running are both good sports to compare with speed skating, at least, from a physiological health and training perspective. Mass start speed skating, like anything in inline speed, and some events in ice skating, rely heavily on the pack dynamic during the race similar to cycling. Running provides a lot of analogies in the context of physical fitness.
In the vein of analyzing similar sports, Joe Friel, triathlete coach and master cyclist, has a wealth of information on his website that is helpful in understanding how the body works during endurance sport. We should start with the premise, as he does, that being a good endurance athlete requires three things: Aerobic Capacity, Lactate Threshold, and Economy. Some posts on Joe Friel’s blog break down these concepts in detail.
First, aerobic capacity is basically your body’s ability to process oxygen and use it for helping your body generate and consume fuel. Oxygen is the catalyst for the biochemical mechanisms that make the body operate, especially during exercise. Unfortunately, aerobic capacity is dictated by, in large part, genetics. However, you can train your body to increase your capacity. Scientifically, this capacity is measured using a VO2 Max test, and it is one of the reasons I was so interested in participating in this kind of test. It provided a benchmark for me to compare and analyze my fitness for the purpose of skating. Realistically, there are a couple of things you can do to increase your VO2 Max without getting new genes. Weight can be a factor, and I have been fighting with mine lately. I am always looking to drop an extra 15 to 20 pounds, but now that I am past the ripe age of 30, that has proven to be more difficult than I expected. The one big piece, though, is endurance specific training. That sounds ridiculous. I skate long distances all the time, so I should be getting enough endurance training. However, what makes endurance training important has more to do with heart rate than distance.
There is a lot of scientific support for the proposition that most of an endurance athlete’s time should be spent training in heart rate zone 2, roughly 60%-70% of your max heart rate. It makes sense that you train in this zone to build endurance because in this zone you are “teaching” your body to burn fat for energy, and your muscles respond by increasing the mitochondrial density (and see also) in your slow twitch muscle cells. Before we go off the scientific deep end here, this really just means that the portions of the muscle cells that produce and consume energy during a workout are increased as a result of this kind of training, making the athlete more efficient at burning calories for long periods of time, thereby increasing your endurance. In addition to Zone 2 training, intervals are important, especially at a pace that is at or near your VO2 Max. What we see here is a coordinated way to increase your aerobic capacity by spending a lot of time training in Heart Rate Zone 2 and doing intervals, in addition to losing some weight.
The second piece of this puzzle is Lactate Threshold. I won’t belabor the science here, as Friel’s post does a great job on that point. This is literally the “red line” for your heart, or the percentage of your maximum heart rate you can hold for 60 minutes of high intensity exercise like a race. This is sport specific. My Lactate Threshold based on my most recent inline marathons suggests that my threshold is about 165 beats per minute (bpm). However, take that with a grain of salt because I have never undergone any specific lactate testing. For more information on this terribly misunderstood topic, check out Training Peaks discussion on Lactate Threshold. The conclusion in this article is very interesting. In order to increase your LT, you need to do more Zone 2 cardio because it is the slow-twitch muscles that clear lactate from the fast-twitch muscles. However, it is also important to work those fast twitch muscles so the body can recruit all of the muscle systems to maximize its efficiency in clearing lactate. Bottom line, spend more time training in cardio Zone 2, and do intervals, also.
Third, we need to consider the economy of movement to maximize the use of energy over a long race. Joe Friel, again, notes in his post, that science knows very little about how this impacts fitness and sports performance, but that it is basically defined as how much oxygen the body uses per specified amount of exertion, or milliliters of oxygen per mile. When speed skaters think about economy, we usually also think about movement efficiency, and for good reason as they are basically the same for our sport(s). Friel talks about different ways to improve economy by pointing to examples on how to reduce external friction (like aero bars on TT bikes) or work on pedaling technique for cyclists, and reducing gear weight for runners. However, he also notes that explosive exercises like plyometrics can make the body more efficient. For anyone who has been to a skating clinic, this probably all sounds very familiar. For speed skaters, this really boils down to something very straightforward, technique. This is something we can work on until we think we have it perfect, watch video of our skating, and find 10 new things to change. For skaters to excel on this level, it requires drill after drill to perfect technique and form, something most of us don’t care about as much as we should because we just want to get out and skate.
Knowing that efficiency is part of the game is great, but there also has to be a way to measure economy so we can see when it is having an impact on our skating and potential results in a race. Friel commented in a Twitter post that the method of calculating efficiency over the duration of a work out is speed/HR. If you are looking at an overall workout, for example, you can take average speed divided by average heart rate to get your economy for the entire work out or race. My recent race at the MN Half Marathon would look like the following: 18.7 mph avg/165 bpm avg. I think this serves to show speed over effort, and there are a lot of factors that influence this kind of data. For example, in a pack sport like outdoor inline marathon racing, drafting is a big part of the tactics and should be considered a required skill. It reduces the amount of wind resistance and can conserve energy by up to 30%. However, when you are out on a solo skate, pounding away at the pavement, the real terms of economy come down to stride and glide length, underpush, weight transfer, and knee bend. I also think that weight lifting has a role here, particularly in skating. By lifting weights as part of training, you are capable of putting more power to the ground under max effort, which should translate to being able to put a larger amount of power to the ground through the push than if you are not weight training.
What does this tell us about training? First, this analysis doesn’t seem very far off base. Sutton Atkins from Sk8 Skool Online recently dissected a post from Training Peaks on these points. Generally, we seem to agree that much of this scientific study from other sports applies to speed skating. Second, and most importantly, it gives skaters an idea of how to train. Joey Mantia said in the Minnesota Clinic he did in June that some skaters are tremendous physical athletes, while others have perfect technique, but the best skaters in the world have both. I think anyone who seriously trains for speed skating should strive to be a great athlete with great technique.
Clearly, there are three things that need to be in a training program: Long HR Zone 2 work outs, Intervals, and Technique practice. However, we also see the need for supplemental exercise to support overall fitness and increase skating performance. Plyometric exercises, skating in groups for drafting practice, weight lifting, and tempo skating all have their place in a well structured training plan. Also, it shows we can rely on science supporting other endurance sports to help direct how we should be training as speed skaters. All of a sudden, there is a lot more information and a lot more training options out there.
What do you think? Am I right, or so wrong I should go back to the basement and spend 5 hours on the slide board?